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Tracing the Reception and Adaptation of Foreign
esthetic elements in Tibetan sculpture


Alsop 1990
Alsop, Ian: Phagpa Lokeshvara of the Potala. In: Orientations Magazine 1998 (Art of Tibet, Selected articles from Orientations 1981-1997), 81-91.

Alsop 1994, 1997
Alsop, Ian: "The Metal Sculpture of the Khasa Malla Kingdom" Orientations June 1994, pp.61-68

Alsop 1997
Alsop, Ian: "The Metal Sculpture of the Khasa Mallas" in Casey Singer, Jane and Denwood, Philip (eds.). Tibetan Art, Towards a Definition of Style, London, 1997, pp. 68-79.

Alsop 2000
Alsop, Ian: Copies in Tibetan Sacred Art, Two Examples. In: Oriental Art, N. S. 46(2), 4-13.

Backus 1981
C. Backus, The Nan-chao kingdom and T'ang China's southwestern frontier, Cambridge University Press, 1981: p. 28 and fn. 79 on the history of Chinese bridge construction and the strategic advantage gained by the Tibetans due to their metallurgical skills.

Béguin 1990
Béguin, Gilles: Art Esotérique dc l'Himalaya, Catalogue de la donation Lionel Fournier, Paris, Réunion des Musées Nationaux.

Carter 1998
Carter, Martha: “Three Silver Vessels from Tibet’s Earliest Historical Era: a Preliminary Study. In: Cleveland Studies in the History of Art 3, 22-47.

Demiéville 1987
Demiéville, Paul: Le Concile de Lhasa, Paris (reprint of 1952).

Foucher 1913
Foucher, Alfred. Les Images indiennes de la fortune. In: Mémoires concernant L’Asie Orientale, L’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Ernest Leroux, Paris, 123-138.

Heller 1998
Heller, Amy: Two Inscribed Fabrics and their Historical Context: Some Observations on Esthetics and Silk Trade in Tibet, 7th to 9th Entlang der Seidenstrasse. Frühmittelalterliche Kunst zwischen Persien und China in der Abegg-Stiftung. Hg: Otavsky, Karel. Riggisberger Berichte 6, Riggisberg, Schweiz, 95-118.

Heller 1999
Heller, Amy: Tibetan Art, Tracing the Development of Spiritual Ideals and Art in Tibet, 600-2000 A. D., Jaca Book, Antique Collector’s Club, Milano.

Heller 2002
Heller, Amy: The Silver Jug of the Lhasa Jokhang: Some observations on silver objects and costumes from the Tibetan Empire (7th-9th century),

Heller 2003
Heller, Amy: The Silver Jug of the Lhasa Jokhang: Some observations on silver objects and costumes from the Tibetan Empire (7th –9th century). In: Silk Road Art and Archeology 9, 213-237.

Heller 2003a
Heller, Amy: Archaeological Artefacts from the Tibetan Empire in Central Asia. In: Orientations 34(4), 55-64.

Heller 2003b
Heller, Amy: The Three Silver Brothers. In: Orientations 34(4), 28-34.

Hinüber 2004
Hinüber, Oskar von: Die Palola Sahis, Ihre Steinischriften, inschriften auf bronzen, handscriftenkolophone und schutzzauber. Materialien zur Geschichte von Gilgit und Chilas. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, 2004.

Huntington/Huntington 1990
Huntington, Susan L. & Huntington, John C.: Leaves from the Bodhi Tree, The Art of Påla India 8th-12th Centuries and its International Legacy, Seattle/London.

Karmay 1975
Karmay, Heather: Early Sino-Tibetan Art, Aris and Philips. Warminster.

Klimburg 1982
Klimburg, Maximilian: The Setting: The Western Trans-Himalayan Crossroads ,in: The Silk Route and The Diamond Path, Hg.: Klimburg –Salter, Deborah. UCLA Art Council, Los Angeles, USA, 24-37.

Knauer 1998
Knauer, Elfriede: The Camel’s Load in Life and Death. Iconography and Ideology of Chinese Pottery Figurines from Han to Tang and the Relevance to Trade Along the Silk Routes, Akanthus, Kilchberg/Zürich.

Kuijp 1995 (or van der Kuijp 1995 or??)
Kuijp, Leonard van der. Baysi and Baysi-s in Tibetan Historical, Biographical and Lexicological Texts. In: Central Asiatic Journal 39(2), 275-301.

Lévi 1905
Lévi, Sylvain: Le Népal, etude historique d’un royaume hindou, vols. 1-2., Ernest Leroux, Paris.

Lo Bue 1997
Lo Bue, Erberto. The role of Newar Scholars in transmitting the Indian Buddhist Heritage to Tibet (c. 750-1200) in: Les Habitants du Toit du Monde. Hg: Karmay, S. and Sagant, P. Société d’Ethnologie, Nanterre, France, 629-658.

Lo Bue 1997
Lo Bue, Erberto. Sculptural Styles According to Pema Karpo. in: Tibetan Art Towards a Definition of Style. Hg: Casey-Singer, J. and Denwood, P., Laurence King, London, 242-253.

Lo Bue 1998
Lo Bue, Erberto: Tibet, Templi scomparsi fotografati da Fosco Maraini. Turin

Lo Bue/Ricca 1993
Lo Bue, Erberto F. und Ricca, F.: The Great Stupa of Gyantse, A Complete Tibetan Pantheon of the Fifteenth Century, Serindia Publications, London.

Martin 2001
Martin, Dan: Painters, Patrons and Paintings of Patrons in Early Tibetan Art, in: Embodying Wisdom, Art, Text and Interpretation in the History of Esoteric Buddhism, Hg.: Linrothe, R. und Sørensen, H., The Seminar for Buddhist Studies Monographs 6, 139-184, Kopenhagen.

Mele 1969
Mele, Pietro. Tibet, Oxford and IBH publishing co, Calcutta, 1969.

Pal 2003
Pal, Pratapaditya: Himalayas, An Aesthetic Adventure, The Art Institute of Chicago in association with the California Press and Mapin Publishing, Chicago.

Pelliot 1961
Pelliot, Paul: Histoire Ancienne du Tibet, Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient A. Maisonneuve , Paris.

Postel 1989
Postel, Michel. Ear Ornaments of Ancient India, Project for Indian Cultural Studies, Publication 2, Bombay.

Richardson 1998
Richardson, Hugh E.: Two Chinese Princesses in Tibet, in: High Peaks, Pure Earth, Collected Writings on Tibetan History and Culture, Hg.: Richardson, H.E., with an introduction by Michael Aris., 207-215, Serindia, London, U.K.

Roerich 1996
Roerich, George N.: The Blue Annals, von Gö Lotsawa Zhönu Pal [’gos lo tså ba gzhon nu dpal], Teil 1 & 2, übers. von G. Roerich, Calcutta 1949, Reprint Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi.

Schaefer 1963
Schaefer, Edward H.: The Golden Peaches of Samarkand, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Schroeder 1981
Schroeder, Ulrich von: Indo-Tibetan Bronzes, Visual Dharma Publications, Hongkong.

Schroeder 2001
Schroeder, Ulrich von: Buddhist Scultpures in Tibet, 2 Bde., Bd. 1: India & Nepal; Bd. 2: Tibet & China, Visual Dharma Publications, Hongkong.

Sims-Williams 1996
Sims-Williams, Nicolas: The Sogdian Merchants in China and India , in: Cina e Iran da Alessandro Magno alla dinastia Tang,Hg.: Cadonna, Alfredo and Lanciotti, Lionello, Leo S. Olschki Editore, Firenze, 45-67.

Slusser /Vajracharya 1973
Slusser, Mary S. and Vajracharya, Gautamvajra.: Some Nepalese Stone Sculptures: A Reappraisal within their Cultural and Historical Context, In: Artibus Asiae, 35 (1-2), 79-138.

Slusser 1982
Slusser, Mary S. Nepal Mandala A Cultural Study of the Kathmandu Valley, vol.1-2, Princeton University Press, Princeton, USA.

Siudmak 2000
Siudmak, John. The Development of the Classical Buddha Image from Kashmir, and some Observations on Kashmirian Influence on the Sculpture of West Tibet. In: Oriental Art 46 (2)

Stoddard 1985
Stoddard, Heather. "A stone sculpture of mGur mGon-po, Mahakala of the Tent, dated 1292" in Oriental Art, vol. 31, no. 3, autumn 1985, p. 260, 278-282.

Tucci 1956
Tucci, Giuseppe:, To Lhasa and Beyond, Diary of the expedition to Tibet in the year 1948. Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, Roma

Vitali 1990
Vitali, Roberto: Early Temples of Central Tibet. Serindia Publications, London

Vitali 1996
Vitali, Roberto. The Kingdoms of Pu.hrang according to the mNga’.ris rgyal.rabs by mkhan.chen Ngag.dbang grags pa, Tho.ling gtsug.lag.khagn lo.gcig.ston ‘’i rjes.dran.mdzad sgo’i go.sgrig tshogs.chung, Dharamsala.

Wangdu / Diemberger 2000
Wangdu, Pasang and Diemberger, Hildegard: Dba’ bzhed. The Royal Narrative concerning the Bringing of the Buddha’s Doctrine to Tibet, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien.

Weldon/Singer 1999
Weldon, D. und Singer, Jane Casey: The Sculptural Heritage of Tibet, Buddhist Art in the Nyingjei Lam Collection, Laurence King, London.

Weldon 2000
Weldon, David: Tibetan Sculpture Inspired by Earlier Foreign Sculptural Styles. In: Oriental Art 46 (2), 47-56.

Chinese language publications
Xizang zhizhiqu shannan diqu wenwuju, “Xizang langkarzi xian chajiagou gumuzang de qingli, Kaogu, 2001/6.

Zhongguo zang xue, 1994/4: 31-45
Article by Xu Xinguo : Dulan Tuban muzhon dujinyingqi shu Sute xitong de tuiding (translated title in Table of Contents : A conclusion of gold and silver-plating vessels found in Tubo Tombs in Dulan belong to Sogdi System.) | back to main article | articles