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1 P. Lal, trans. The Dhammapada (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. 1967. p. 30.

2 Marie-Therese de Mallmann. Etude Iconographique sur Manjusri (Paris: Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient. 1964). p. 259.

3 Ibid. See also Alex Wayman, "Symbolism of the Mandala Palace," in The Buddhist Tantras (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1973). pp. 92-93.

4 After Marie-Therese de Mallmann, Introduction a l'iconographie du tantrisme Bouddhique (Paris: Bibliotheque du Centre de Recherches sur l'Asie Centrale et la Haute Asie. 1975). pp. 349-51. See also Susan L. Huntington and John C. Huntington, Leaves from the Bodhi Tree (Seattle and London: Dayton Art Institute and University of Washington Press. 1990). p. 266.

5 For a brief description of the eight vijnana, see Dudjom Rinpoche, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History. trans. Gyurme Dorje in collaboration with Matthew Kapstein. 2 vols. (Boston: Wisdom Publications. 1991). vol. 2, pp. 156-57.

6 Giuseppe Tucci, The Theory and Practice of the Mandala. trans. Alan Houghton Brodrick (New York: Samuel Weisner. 1973). p. 44.

7 On this term, see Alex Wayman, "Contributions on the Symbolism of the Mandala Palace," in Etudes tibetaines dediees a la memoire de Marcelle Lalou (Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve. 1971) p. 557; Mallmann, Manjusri, p. 72, n.2; and Ananda Coomaraswamy, "Indian Architectural Terms," Journal of the American Oriental Society 48 (1928): 263, where he states, "the ultimate meaning of kutagara would be `honorable building.'"

8 Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, 2 vols. (Calcutta: University of Calcutta. 1946), pp. 6-7. The following discussion of the temple is largely drawn from her work.

9 Jaideva Singh, trans. Vijnana Bhairava (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1979), p. 137.

10 Advayasiddhi, quoted in Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, ed. Sadhanamata, vol 2 (Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1928), p. lv.

11 See Mallmann, Manjusri, p. 111; and Tucci, Theory and Practice of the Mandala, pp. 58-59.

12 See Mallmann, Introduction a l'iconographie du tantrisme bouddhique, pp. 396-400 for iconographic descriptions of these deities.

13 Wayman, Symbolism of the Mandala Palace," p. 100. See Mallmann, Introduction a l'iconographie du tantrisme bouddhique, pp. 124-27 for other groups of sixteen bodhisattvas which appear in various mandalas.

14 It should be noted that, in practice, the initiate identifies with all features of the mandala; see Wayman, The Buddhist Tantras, pp. 86-88.

15 The five differ slightly in textual sources. There are many groups of five associated with the five tathagata, e.g. the five components (pancaskandha). See Dudjom Rinpoche, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, vol. 2, pp. 140-49.

16 After Ibid, p. 147, where they are described as the "Five Pristine Cognitions."

17 David Snellgrove, Indo-Tibetan Buddhism (London: Serindia. 1987), pp. 203, 451.

18 Now in Musee Guimet, Paris; India Office Library and British Museum. London; and Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Published in Spain, A. and Y. Imaeda, eds. Choix de documents Tibetains conserves a la Bibliotheque Nationale, complete par quelques Manuscrits de l'India Office et du British Museum, 2 vols. (Paris: Bibliotheque Nationale, 1978-79).

19 Roberto Vitali, Early Temples of Central Tibet (London: Serindia Publications, 1990), pp. 111-112.

20 See for example Galerie Robert Burawoy, Peintures du monastere de Nor (Libourne: Arts Graphiques d'Aquitaine, 1978).

21 These crucial lineages of teachers frequently appear in the top, bottom and/or side registers of a Tibetan painted mandala.

22 See Erberto Lo Bue, "Iconographic Sources and Iconometric Literature in Tibetan and Himalayan Art," in Tadeusz Skorupski ed., Indo-Tibetan Studies (Tring: Institute of Tibetan Studies, 1990), pp. 185-86; and Alex Wayman, "Received Teachings of Tibet and Analysis of the Tantric Canon," in The Buddhist Tantras, pp. 234-39.

23 Erberto Lo Bue and Franco Ricca, Gyantse Revisited (Firenze: Casa Editrice Le Lettere, 1990), p. 103.

24 Benoytosh Bhattacharyya, The Indian Buddhist Iconography, reprint, 2nd ed. (Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1968), p. 116 and passim.

25 Bhattacharyya, Sadhanamala, vol 2, p. cxxiii.

26 R.A. Stein, Tibetan Civilization, trans. J.E. Stapleton Driver (Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1972), p. 182. It is interesting that this ritual is preceded by purifications, including recitation of one's lineage of teachers (bla-ma'i brgyud), who are said to validate the rite.

27 See B.S. Verma, "Excavation at Antichak," Journal of the Behar Puravid Parishad I (1977): 192-201.

28 See Bhattacharyya, Sadhanamala, vol. 2, pp. xc-xci, and Benoytosh Bhattacharyya ed., Nispannayogavali, Gaekwad's Oriental Series no. 109 (Baroda: Oriental Institute. 1949), p. 9, for a list of Abhayakaragupta's translations. See also Wayman, The Buddhist Tantras, p. 239.

29 This translation follows the Sanskrit edition which Benoytosh Bhattacharyya published in 1949. Portions of the first chapter are translated into French by Mallmann, Manjusri, pp. 69-74. Dr. Gary Tubb, formerly Assistant Professor of Sanskrit and Indian Studies at Harvard University, read and offered useful comments on my translation some years ago. This quote corresponds to Nispannayogavali lines: kulesabhusito hrbijayuktah, sunyatakarunaikarosa mahasukhamayah srivajrasattvo manjuvajradirupaparimi-tatathagatadevibodhisattva krodhadin sphrayet/dharmadesanadibhiryathabhavyamj parahitam vikurvanah parapunyavadhi sthapayet/samharamscacintya murtir udeti (Bhattacharyya, Nispannayogavali, p. 1).

30 This paragraph is drawn from Nispannayogavali lines: iha hi mrdumadhyakramabhyam subhavitasamadher adhimatraprajnasya bhagavatah sarvakarvaropetah sphurat sambarakarakah/jhatitijnanamspanno yogo nispanna ucyate//(lbid.).

31 Nispannayogavali lines: lalite saddarsitadamstra vikatasmasravah/tadanye vikrtarupa sabhrubhanga-pingordhvakesa bhru smasravo vyaghra damstrakaralavaktra laljjihva damstrotkata hasmah krurastanagabhusana vamapah pinas tundilah/Ibid., 2.

32 On this term, see Mallmann, Manjusri, p. 256 and passim. Alex Wayman, The Buddhist Tantras, pp. 89-91.

33 See note 7 above.

34 For its location in the Tibetan Tanjur, see Wayman, The Buddhist Tantras, p. 239.

35 vighnaghatanantarm sunyata pravesat bhavyamandale'pi raksacakram nastyato na likhyate caitat/ Bhattacharyya, Nispannayogavali, p. 4.

36 yathabahyam tatha'dhyatmam Ibid. It is noteworthy that the generic term for images in Tibetan is rten, literally, "support" or "reminder."

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